Sample Chapter - Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle & Cell Division
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Chromosomes discovered by Walther Fleming
Chromatin fibres condense to form Chromosomes.
Chromatids joined at Centromere.
(Centromere - Ear)
DNA + 8 Histones
Structure of DNA discovered by Watson and Crick
(Shane Watson - Cricket)
Structure of DNA - Helix.
DNA is Double helix.
Macromolecule - A molecule containing large number of atoms
2 complementary strands
Nucleotide = Phosphate + Sugar + Nitrogenous Base
Nitrogenous bases - Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
Cytosine & Guanine paired by
3 hydrogen bonds
Adenine = Thymine
2 hydrogen bonds
Double helix unwinds at one end...
New cells formed for - GRRR - Growth, Repair, Replacement, Reproduction
Mitosis - Growth, Repair, Replacement.
Meiosis - Reproduction.
Quantity of DNA is doubled in Interphase.
Interphase - Centrosome, Nuclear Membrane, Nucleolus, Chromatin Threads
Phases of Mitosis :
Kinesis - movement.
PMAT-Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Cell Cycle -
Interphase - G1, S, G2.
Prophase - Nuclear membrane disappearing, Centriole, Chromatids, Spindle Fibres
M for Metaphase.
M for Middle (equator)
Metaphase - Chromosomes at equator of cell, Chromatids, Spindle Fibres
A for Anaphase.
A for Apart
Anaphase - Furrow in cell membrane, Chromatids, Spindle Fibre
Telophase - Furrow in cell membrane, Nuclear membrane, Nucleolus, Chromatin fibres.
Cytokinesis - Division of cytoplasm.
Animals | Plants -
CATS-Cell plate, Asters, Tips & Sides
Stages of Interphase - G1, S, G2
First Growth Phase (G1).
Proteins & RNA synthesised.
Mitochondria & chloroplasts divide.
Cytoplasm grows in size.
Synthesis Phase (S)
DNA is replicated
Second Growth Phase (G2) - Proteins & RNA synthesised.
Humans have 46 chromosomes.
Double - Diploid (2n)
Half - Haploid (n).
Meiosis produces gametes
2 haploid gametes fuse to form diploid cell. n+n=2n
Maternal & paternal chromosomes randomly distributed in gametes.
Mitosis | Meiosis - DISG
ST - Diploid Identical Somatic Growth Single Throughout
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